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Online Accessibility Rubric - Welcome and Navigating the Wikispace

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on July 15, 2017 at 6:53:49 pm
 

Introduction

Thank you for your interest in making online material accessible to everyone possible. Words can't describe how important it is. Many people think it is not a "big deal," but it is. Many people are short on time. Due to its importance you must make time. Always remember, doing something is better than doing nothing. Doing nothing is the worst thing that you can do.

In creating this rubric, we wanted to pull everything together in one place to make it easier to evaluate material. This Wiki is a working document. We welcome any feedback or additions that you can provide. For example, what do you find confusing? What have you found to be a best practice? What do you find difficult when you use Webpages, online documents, or the like? We will be grateful for any information you can provide.

Online Accessiblity Rubric
The rubric to criterion 12 is adapted from "Web content accessibility guidelines (WCAG) 2.0‚Äč," by W3C, 2008, Retrieved from http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/ and the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Standards and Guidelines 82 Fed. Reg. 5790 (January, 18, 2017) (to be codified at 36 C.F.R. pt. 1193 & 1194).
This rubric complies with Appendix A to Part 1194, Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act: Application and Scoping Requirements, E207.2 WCAG Conformance. User interface components and the content of platforms and applications, shall conform to Level A and Level AA Success Criteria and Conformance Requirements in WCAG 2.0 (p. 5835).
Most Web Design Best Practices were found in Anderson et. al (2010).
Functional Performance Criteria and Technical Requirements (Appendix C to Part 1194) WCAG 2.0 Optimum Accessibility (Level AAA: passes level A, AA, and AAA) Improved Accessibility (Level AA: passes level A and AA) Minimum Accessibility (passes Level A) Does not Pass
302.1. Without Vision. Where a visual mode of operation is provided, ICT shall provide at least one mode of operation that does not require user vision.

302.2. With Limited Vision. Where a visual mode of operation is provided, ICT shall provide at least one mode of operation that enables users to make use of limited vision.

1.1. Text Alternatives: Provide text alternatives for any non-text content so that it can be changed into other forms people need, such as large print, braille, speech, symbols or simpler language.

Testing
Use WAVE Web Accessibility Tool by WebAIM.
http://wave.webaim.org/
Verify this criterion with a screen reader if possible.

N/A N/A Criterion 1.1.1.
All non-text content has an equivalent text alternative except in certain conditions specified by Criterion 1.1.1.

Applicable to the following including, but not limited to, images and textual descriptions of videos.

All non-text content does not have an equivalent text alternative except in certain conditions specified by Criterion 1.1.1.
302.4. Without Hearing. Where an audible mode of operation is provided, ICT shall provide at least one mode of operation that does not require user hearing.

302.5. With Limited Hearing. Where an audible mode of operation is provided, ICT shall provide at least one mode of operation that enables users to make use of limited hearing.

302.1 and 302.2 also apply.

1.2. Time-based Media: Provide alternatives for time-based media.

Testing
Check each criterion by inspecting the content manually.

Criterion 1.2.6.
All pre-recorded audio content in synchronized media has sign language interpretation.

Criterion 1.2.7.
Allows the option of listening to additional audio to describe the pre-recorded video content in synchronized media while pausing the video. (if needed only)

Criterion 1.2.8.
All pre-recorded synchronized media and video-only media has an alternative. A text alternative is required.

Criterion 1.2.9.
An alternative is provided for live audio-only content using a captioning service.

Criterion 1.2.4.
Captions are provided for all live audio content in synchronized media.

Criterion 1.2.5.
All prerecorded video in synchronized media has audio descriptions.

Audio descriptions are only required when they are needed, such as the audio containing a phrase "click here" with other audible information.

Criterion 1.2.1.
All pre-recorded audio-only and video-only media has an equivalent alternative.

Criterion 1.2.2.
Captions are provided for all pre-recorded audio content in synchronized media.

Criterion 1.2.3.
An alternative means of access, such as a transcript or audio descriptions provided during pauses, is provided for pre-recorded video content.

Captions are always required. The exception for the other conditions is when there is a text version available that is clearly labeled. A text alternative that is an exact duplicate of the content is not required. The text alternative must be equivalent only.

All content does not meet the Criteria specified for level A.
302.3 Without perception of color. Where a visual mode of operation is provided, ICT shall provide at least one visual mode of operation that does not require user perception of color.

302.9. With Limited Language, Cognitive, and Learning Abilities. ICT shall provide features making its use by individuals with limited cognitive, language, and learning abilities simpler and easier.

302.1, 302.2, 302.4 and 302.5 also apply.

1.3. Adaptable: Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure.

Testing
WAVE can be used to find Criterion 1.3.1 violations in HTML content, but manual inspection is more reliable.
PAC 2.0 will find violations in a PDF. Be sure to read the report. Two errors can likely be ignored at this time until PDF/UA is more widely implemented.
http://www.access-for-all.ch/en/pdf-lab/pdf-accessibility-checker-pac.html
Criteria 1.3.2-1.3.3 require inspecting the content manually.

N/A N/A Criterion 1.3.1.
Markup is used to indicate structure so that accessibility technology can convey that information to the user, such as using headings, lists, and emphasized text. Also, implied information and relationships in multimedia are present when the format changes.

Criterion 1.3.2.
The reading order makes sense. Also, sequential information is the same for alternative formats.

Criterion 1.3.3.
Instructions do not rely on particular sensory components alone, such as visual or auditory clues.

All content does not meet the Criteria specified for level A.
302.1, 302.2, 302.3, 302.5 and 302.9 apply. 1.4. Distinguishable: Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background.

Testing
Color contrast can be tested using the Colour Contrast Analyser.
https://www.paciellogroup.com/resources/contrastanalyser/
Background sound can be analyzed using Audacity.
http://www.audacityteam.org/
Zoom must be tested with several common browsers and Adobe Reader. All other criteria require inspecting the content manually.

Criterion 1.4.6.
All text and images of text have a contrast ratio of at least 7:1 except for the conditions specified by Criterion 1.4.6.

Criterion 1.4.7.
All pre-recorded audio speeches have either no background sounds, the ability to turn off background sounds, or background sounds that are 20 dB lower than the audio speech.

Criterion 1.4.8.
All blocks of text have foreground and background colors that can be selected by the user, a width that is no wider than 80 characters, no text justification, at least a space and a half within paragraphs, at least 1.5 times the line spacing between paragraphs, and the ability to resize text up to 200 percent without assistive technologies and without needing to scroll horizontally.

Criterion 1.4.9.
Use text instead of an image unless you cannot achieve the same effect otherwise. Same as Criterion 1.4.5 except this applies to when the user can customize the output.

Criterion 1.4.3.
All text and images of text have a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1 except for the conditions specified by Criterion 1.4.3.

Criterion 1.4.4.
Except for captions and images of text, all text can be resized up to 200 percent without a loss of content quality or functionality and without assistive technologies. Testing with several common browsers and Adobe Reader is required.

Criterion 1.4.5.
Use text instead of an image unless you cannot achieve the same effect otherwise except for the conditions specified by Criterion 1.4.5. This criterion applies to HTML and PDF documents.

Criterion 1.4.1.
Color alone is not used to distinguish an element.

Criterion 1.4.2.
All audio that automatically plays longer than 3 seconds can be paused or stopped. Audio volume for this content can be controlled independently.

All content does not meet the Criteria specified for level A.
302.7 With Limited Manipulation. Where a manual mode of operation is provided, ICT shall provide at least one mode of operation that does not require fine motor control or simultaneous manual operations.

302.8. With Limited Reach and Strength. Where a manual mode of operation is provided, ICT shall provide at least one mode of operation that is operable with limited reach and limited strength.

302.1 and 302.2 also apply.

2.1. Keyboard Accessible: Make all functionality available from a keyboard.

Testing
Each criterion must be tested with several common browsers and Adobe Reader.

Criterion 2.1.3.
All functionality is keyboard accessible and focus can be moved away from each component without exception.
N/A Criterion 2.1.1.
All functionality is keyboard accessible.

Criterion 2.1.2.
Focus can be moved away from each component.

It does not require a timed response except in the case that the function depends on user's movements.

All content does not meet the Criteria specified for level A.
302.1, 302.2, 302.7, 302.8, and 302.9 apply. 2.2. Enough Time: Provide users enough time to read and use content.

Testing
Check each criterion by inspecting the content manually.

Criterion 2.2.3.
Timing is not essential except for non-interactive synchronized media and real time events.

Criterion 2.2.4.
All interruptions can be postponed except in emergency situations.

Criterion 2.2.5.
User can continue an activity without losing data when a session expires and they need to authenticate.

N/A Criterion 2.2.1.
If there are time limits, there must be the ability to turn them off, adjust them or extend them. For more information, go to WCAG 2.0.

Criterion 2.2.2.
Users can pause, stop, or hide all automated moving, blinking, scrolling content that lasts longer than 5 seconds unless it is essential to the activity. This is true for auto-updating content unless the user can control the frequency of the updated material.

All content does not meet the Criteria specified for level A.
  2.3. Seizures: Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures.

Testing
Use PEAT for all criteria: http://trace.wisc.edu/peat/

Criterion 2.3.2.
Does not contain anything that flashes more than three times a second.
N/A Criterion 2.3.1.
Does not contain anything that flashes more than three times a second or which falls below the general and red flash thresholds.
Contains items that flash more than three times a second and does not fall below the general and red flash thresholds.
302.1, 302.2, 302.7, 302.8, and 302.9 apply. 2.4. Navigable: Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are on the screen/website.

Testing
Each criterion must be tested with several common browsers and Adobe Reader, or by inspecting the content manually.

Criterion 2.4.8.
Users are provided with information about their location within the Web site, for example, by being provided with a breadcrumb trail. PDFs have an indication like page numbers or running headings

Criterion 2.4.9.
The purpose of all links can be determined by its text unless it would make the link ambiguous to users in general.

Criterion 2.4.10.
All content is organized by section headings.

Criterion 2.4.5.
There are multiple ways to locate Web pages except when the page is a result of a step in a process. Bookmarks are in a PDF.

Criterion 2.4.6.
Headings and labels describe their content or purpose.

Criterion 2.4.7.
There is a visual cue that a component has focus. Testing with several common browsers is required.

Criterion 2.4.1.
Can skip blocks of content that are repeated on multiple Web pages. Using headings in PDF documents.

Criterion 2.4.2.
Web page or document titles describe their purpose.

Criterion 2.4.3.
Components receive focus in an order that preserves meaning and operability.

Criterion 2.4.4.
The link purpose can be determined from the link text or within the context of the sentence, paragraph, etc. that contains it unless it would make the link ambiguous to users in general.

All content does not meet the Criteria specified for level A.
302.1, 302.2, and 302.9 apply. 3.1. Readable: Make text content readable and understandable.

Testing
Check each criterion by inspecting the content manually.

Criterion 3.1.3.
Identify definitions of words used in an unusual or restricted way, such a idioms and jargon. An example would be a word that links to a glossary on the same page.

Criterion 3.1.4.
Identify the meanings of acronyms.

Criterion 3.1.5.
When text requires an advanced reading level, there is a version that does not require more than a lower secondary education level.

Criterion 3.1.6.
A mechanism to pronounce words is available when needed to understand its meaning.

Criterion 3.1.2.
If multiple languages are present, indicate the language of the passages that differ from the Web page default unless they are proper names, technical terms, or words of indeterminate language or words that have become part of the vernacular of the immediately surrounding text.
Criterion 3.1.1.
Each Web page has a default human language.
All Web pages do not have a default human language.
302.1, 302.2, and 302.9 apply. 3.2. Predictable: Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways.

Testing
Each criterion must be tested with several common browsers or by inspecting the content manually.
Verify this criteria with a screen reader if possible.

Criterion 3.2.5.
Changes of context are initiated only by the user or they can turn this feature off.
Criterion 3.2.3.
Navigation that appears on multiple Web pages occur in the same relative order unless a change is initiated by the user. PDFs have consistant page numbers or running headings.

Criterion 3.2.4.
Components that have the same functionality are consistently identified.

Criterion 3.2.1.
When an element received focus, the context does not automatically change.

Criterion 3.2.2.
When changing a setting for the interface, the context does not automatically change unless the user is advised prior to changing the setting.

All content does not meet the Criteria specified for level A.
302.1, 302.2, and 302.9 apply. 3.3. Input Assistance: Help users avoid and correct mistakes.

Testing
Each criterion must be tested with several common browsers or by inspecting the content manually.
Verify this criteria with a screen reader if possible.

PDF forms are included in this criterion.

Criterion 3.3.5.
Context sensitive help is provided.

Criterion 3.3.6.
If user input is required, the submissions are either reversible, checked for input errors with the opportunity to correct them, or reviewed by the user and can be corrected prior to the final submission.

Criterion 3.3.3.
When user input errors are detected, suggestions to correct the error are described unless it would jeopardize security or purpose of content.

Criterion 3.3.4.
For user inputed legal and financial information that will be stored, submissions can be checked and edited by the user and submissions are reversible. For more information, go to WCAG 2.0.

Criterion 3.3.1.
Errors resulting from user input are described in text and the item producing the error is identified.

Criterion 3.3.2.
Labels or instructions are provided when a user needs to enter information.

All content does not meet the Criteria specified for level A.
302.1, 302.2, and 302.9 apply. 4.1. Compatible: Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies.

Testing
W3C markup Validation service can be used for Criterion 4.1.1.
http://validator.w3.org/
WAVE can be used to find Criterion 4.1.2 violations in HTML content, but manual inspection is more reliable.

N/A N/A Criterion 4.1.1.
Good practices, such as start and end tags, proper nesting of elements, no duplicate elements and IDs are unique, are followed.

Criterion 4.1.2.
All user interface components have names and roles that can be determined and are available to user agents including assistive technologies.

All content does not meet the Criteria specified for level A.
302.1, 302.2, and 302.9 apply. Web Design Best Practices

Testing
Inspect the content manually.

N/A N/A Conforms to Web Design Conventions. Does not conform to Web Design Conventions.

References

Anderson, E., DeBold, V., Featherstone, D., Gunther, L., Jacobs, D., Jensen-Inman, L., ... Walter, A. (2010). Interact with Web standards: A holistic approach to Web design. Berkeley, CA: New Riders.

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